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Zafer Sahin, Sinan Canpolat, Mete Ozcan, Tuba Ozgocer and Haluk Kelestimur

The aim of this study was to determine the modulatory effects of peptide 234 (p234) (an antagonist of GPR54 receptors) on kisspeptin and RF9 (an RFamide-related peptide antagonist)-induced changes in reproductive functions and energy balance in female rats. Female Sprague–Dawley rats were weaned on postnatal day (pnd) 21. The animals were intracerebroventricularly cannulated under general anesthesia on pnd 23. Groups of female rats were injected with kisspeptin, RF9, p234, kisspeptin plus p234, or RF9 plus p234, daily. The experiments were ended on the day of first diestrus following pnd 60. Kisspeptin or RF9 alone advanced vaginal opening (VO), which was delayed by administration of kisspeptin antagonist alone. In the rats given kisspeptin plus p234 or RF9 plus p234, VO was not different from control rats. Kisspeptin and RF9 elicited significant elevations in circulating LH levels. Coadministrations of kisspeptin or RF9 with p234 decreased LH levels significantly. The use of p234 alone did not cause any significant change in LH secretion. Kisspeptin decreased both food intake and body weight while RF9 decreased only food intake without affecting body weight. The effects of kisspeptin on energy balance were also reversed by central administration of p234. In conclusion, kisspeptin antagonist, p234, modulates the effects of kisspeptin on reproductive functions and energy balance, whereas RF9 seems to exert only its effects on reproductive functions by means of GPR54 signaling in female rats.

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Nazife Ulker, Ahmet Yardimci, Nalan Kaya Tektemur, Ozgur Bulmus, Seyma Ozer Kaya, Funda Gulcu Bulmus, Gaffari Turk, Mete Ozcan and Sinan Canpolat

Physical exercise and body muscle/fat mass are known to affect the endocrine system, puberty onset and reproductive health. However, the potential effects of irisin, an adipo-myokine and exercise-induced hormone, have not yet been fully elucidated on reproductive maturation. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effects of irisin administration on pubertal maturation and reproductive system in female and male rats. Daily i.p. injection of irisin (100 ng/kg; from postnatal day 21 for about 10 weeks) delayed the ages at the vaginal opening (as an external index of puberty onset) and first estrus. Furthermore, continuous administration of irisin to female rats caused a significant decrease in serum follicle-stimulating hormone levels and an increase in serum luteinizing hormone and 17β-estradiol levels, as well as causing histopathological changes in the ovarian tissue. On the contrary, irisin administration to male rats did not modify the timing of puberty, as estimated by age at preputial separation. However, chronic exposure to irisin produced significant increases in serum luteinizing hormone and testosterone levels and also sperm concentration and seminiferous tubule diameter in male rats. In conclusion, irisin exposure has different effects on both pubertal maturation and reproductive system in female and male rats. The present findings reveal that chronic irisin exposure may lead to disorders in the female reproductive system and may have androgenic potential on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in males.