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Helmut Torner, Nasser Ghanem, Christina Ambros, Michael Hölker, Wolfgang Tomek, Chirawath Phatsara, Hannelore Alm, Marc-André Sirard, Wilhelm Kanitz, Karl Schellander, and Dawit Tesfaye

Oocyte selection based on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) activity has been successfully used to differentiate between competent and incompetent bovine oocytes. However, the intrinsic molecular and subcellular characteristics of these oocytes have not yet been investigated. Here, we aim to identify molecular and functional markers associated with oocyte developmental potential when selected based on G6PDH activity. Immature compact cumulus–oocyte complexes were stained with brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) for 90 min. Based on their colouration, oocytes were divided into BCB (colourless cytoplasm, high G6PDH activity) and BCB+ (coloured cytoplasm, low G6PDH activity). The chromatin configuration of the nucleus and the mitochondrial activity of oocytes were determined by fluorescence labelling and photometric measurement. The abundance and phosphorylation pattern of protein kinases Akt and MAP were estimated by Western blot analysis. A bovine cDNA microarray was used to analyse the gene expression profiles of BCB+ and BCB oocytes. Consequently, marked differences were found in blastocyst rate at day 8 between BCB+ (33.1±3.1%) and BCB (12.1±1.5%) oocytes. Moreover, BCB+ oocytes were found to show higher phosphorylation levels of Akt and MAP kinases and are enriched with genes regulating transcription (SMARCA5), cell cycle (nuclear autoantigenic sperm protein, NASP) and protein biosynthesis (RPS274A and mRNA for elongation factor 1α, EF1A). BCB oocytes, which revealed higher mitochondrial activity and still nucleoli in their germinal vesicles, were enriched with genes involved in ATP synthesis (ATP5A1), mitochondrial electron transport (FL405), calcium ion binding (S100A10) and growth factor activity (bone morphogenetic protein 15, BMP15). This study has evidenced molecular and subcellular organisational differences of oocytes with different G6PDH activity.

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Salilew-Wondim Dessie, Franca Rings, Michael Hölker, Markus Gilles, Danyel Jennen, Ernst Tholen, Vitezslav Havlicek, Urban Besenfelder, Vladimir L Sukhorukov, Ulrich Zimmermann, Joerg M Endter, Marc-André Sirard, Karl Schellander, and Dawit Tesfaye

Selecting developmentally competent oocytes and zygotes based on their morphology is more often influenced by personal judgments and lacks universal standards. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to investigate the rate of development and mRNA level of dielectrophoretically separated oocytes and zygotes to validate dielectrophoresis (DEP) as non-invasive option for selection of oocytes and zygotes. In the first experiment, metaphase II oocytes with (PB+) and without (PB) first polar body and zygotes were subjected to DEP at 4 MHz and 450 μm electrode distance and classified into fast, very fast, slow, and very slow depending on the time elapsed to reach one of the electrodes in the electric field. Parthenogenetic activation was employed to monitor the embryonic development of dielectrophoretically classified oocytes. The result revealed that at 6 and 7 days of post-activation, the blastocyst rate of very slow dielectrophoretic PB+ and PB oocytes was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than other groups. Similarly, in zygotes, the blastocyst rate at 7 days post-insemination was higher (P < 0.05) in the very fast dielectrophoretic categories when compared with the slow and very slow categories. In the second experiment, mRNA level was analyzed in the very fast and very slow dielectrophoretic PB+ oocytes and zygotes respectively using the bovine cDNA microarray. The result showed that 36 and 42 transcripts were differentially regulated between the very fast and very slow dielectrophoretic categories PB+ oocytes and zygotes respectively. In conclusion, dielectrophoretically separated oocytes and zygotes showed difference in the rate of blastocyst development accompanied by difference in transcriptional abundances.