Summary. Knowledge relative to the reproduction of nonhibernating bats is reviewed. Events in the male, as they are now understood, are summarized for all families for which data exist. Attention is given to the wide species diversity of male accessory sex organs in respect to gross structure and glandular complement. Stability or variability of organization of the male reproductive system is noted. Functional relationships between primary and accessory sex organs are considered and any synchrony between these organs and their functional cyclicity identified.
Various frequencies of male reproductive cycles are examined for each species within families. Factors influencing male reproductive events in nonhibernating Chiroptera are briefly considered. It has long been speculation that reproductive cycles under natural conditions are strikingly related to the environment, with such features as temperature, moisture, length of day and available food all implicated. These cues, however, appear to be filtered through varied genetic potential and physiological patterns, since not all species respond similarly, even though residing together in a homogeneous environment. Variations between certain species in frequency and length of the oestrous cycle seem to be accommodated to by parallel adjustments in the male, including extended sperm production or storage and continued secretory activity of accessory sex glands.