As the distal part of the crustacean male reproductive tract, terminal ampullae play important roles in sperm development and storage of mature spermatophores. In the present study, the novel gene terminal ampullae peptide (TAP) was cloned from terminal ampullae of the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The cDNA sequence consists of 768 nucleotides, with an open-reading frame of 264 nucleotides which encodes a putative 88-amino acid precursor protein with a 17-amino acid residue signal peptide. Western blotting and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that TAP was distributed on terminal ampullae and sperm, and its expression was related to gonad development. To elucidate the functional role of TAP in vivo, we disrupted the TAP gene by RNA interference (RNAi) and evaluated the effect on fertility and several sperm parameters. Although there was no difference in fertility between RNAi-induced prawns and controls, RNAi treatment decreased the sperm gelatinolytic activity and blocked proteolytic activity on the vitelline coat. These data provide evidence that TAP participates in regulating sperm proteolytic activity, and performs a crucial role in sperm maturation and degradation of the vitelline coat during fertilization.
Wen-Ming Ma, Ye-Qing Qian, Mo-Ran Wang, Fan Yang and Wei-Jun Yang
Shou-Bin Tang, Lei-Lei Yang, Ting-Ting Zhang, Qian Wang, Shen Yin, Shi-Ming Luo, Wei Shen, Zhao-Jia Ge and Qing-Yuan Sun
It is demonstrated that repeated superovulation has deleterious effects on mouse ovaries and cumulus cells. However, little is known about the effects of repeated superovulation on early embryos. Epigenetic reprogramming is an important event in early embryonic development and could be easily disrupted by the environment. Thus, we speculated that multiple superovulations may have adverse effects on histone modifications in the early embryos. Female CD1 mice were randomly divided into four groups: (a) spontaneous estrus cycle (R0); (b) with once superovulation (R1); (c) with three times superovulation at a 7-day interval (R3) and (d) with five times superovulation at a 7-day interval (R5). We found that repeated superovulation remarkably decreased the fertilization rate. With the increase of superovulation times, the rate of early embryo development was decreased. The expression of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog was also affected by superovulation in blastocysts. The immunofluorescence results showed that the acetylation level of histone 4 at lysine 12 (H4K12ac) was significantly reduced by repeated superovulation in mouse early embryos (P < 0.01). Acetylation level of histone 4 at lysine 16 (H4K16ac) was also significantly reduced in pronuclei and blastocyst along with the increase of superovulation times (P < 0.01). H3K9me2 and H3K27me3 were significantly increased in four-cell embryos and blastocysts. We further found that repeated superovulation treatment increased the mRNA level of histone deacetylases Hdac1, Hdac2 and histone methyltransferase G9a, but decreased the expression level of histone demethylase-encoding genes Kdm6a and Kdm6b in early embryos. In a word, multiple superovulations alter histone modifications in early embryos.
Jian Zhang, Linlin Hao, Qian Wei, Sheng Zhang, Hui Cheng, Yanhui Zhai, Yu Jiang, Xinglan An, Ziyi Li, Xueming Zhang and Bo Tang
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has been successfully used for cloning in a variety of mammalian species. However, SCNT reprogramming efficiency is relatively low, in part, due to incomplete DNA methylation reprogramming of donor cell nuclei. We previously showed that ten-eleven translocation 3 (TET3) is responsible for active DNA demethylation during preimplantation embryonic development in bovines. In this study, we constructed TET3-overexpressing cell lines in vitro and observed that the use of these fibroblasts as donor cells increased the blastocyst rate by approximately 18 percentage points compared to SCNT. The overexpression of TET3 in bovine SCNT embryos caused a decrease in the global DNA methylation level of the pluripotency genes Nanog and Oct-4, ultimately resulting in an increase in the transcriptional activity of these pluripotency genes. Moreover, the quality of bovine TET3-NT embryos at the blastocyst stage was significantly improved, and bovine TET3-NT blastocysts possessed more total number of cells and fewer apoptotic cells than the SCNT blastocysts, similar to in vitro fertilization (IVF) embryos. Nevertheless, DNA methylation of the imprinting control region (ICR) for the imprinted genes H19-IGF2 in SCNT embryos remained unaffected by TET3 overexpression, maintaining parent-specific activity for further development. Thus, the results of our study provide a promising approach to rectify incomplete epigenetic reprogramming and achieve higher cloning efficiency.
Yunhao Liu, Ling Zhang, Wei Li, Qian Huang, Shuo Yuan, Yuhong Li, Junpin Liu, Shiyang Zhang, Guanglun Pin, Shizhen Song, Pierre F Ray, Christophe Arnoult, Chunghee Cho, Balbina Garcia-Reyes, Uwe Knippschild, Jerome F Strauss III and Zhibing Zhang
Mammalian SPAG6, the orthologue of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii PF16, is a component of the central apparatus of the ‘9 + 2’ axoneme that controls ciliary/flagellar motility, including sperm motility. Recent studies revealed that SPAG6 has functions beyond its role in the central apparatus. Hence, we reexamined the role of SPAG6 in male fertility. In wild-type mice, SPAG6 was present in cytoplasmic vesicles in spermatocytes, the acrosome of round and elongating spermatids and the manchette of elongating spermatids. Spag6-deficient testes showed abnormal spermatogenesis, with abnormalities in male germ cell morphology consistent with the multi-compartment pattern of SPAG6 localization. The armadillo repeat domain of mouse SPAG6 was used as a bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen, and several proteins with diverse functions appeared multiple times, including Snapin, SPINK2 and COPS5. Snapin has a similar localization to SPAG6 in male germ cells, and SPINK2, a key protein in acrosome biogenesis, was dramatically reduced in Spag6-deficient mice which have defective acrosomes. SPAG16L, another SPAG6-binding partner, lost its localization to the manchette in Spag6-deficient mice. Our findings demonstrate that SPAG6 is a multi-functional protein that not only regulates sperm motility, but also plays roles in spermatogenesis in multiple cellular compartments involving multiple protein partners.
Shiyang Zhang, Yunhao Liu, Qian Huang, Shuo Yuan, Hong Liu, Lin Shi, Yi Tian Yap, Wei Li, Jingkai Zhen, Ling Zhang, Rex A Hess and Zhibing Zhang
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. IFT172 is a component of the IFT complex. Global disruption of mouse Ift172 gene caused typical phenotypes of ciliopathy. Mouse Ift172 gene appears to translate two major proteins; the full-length protein is highly expressed in the tissues enriched in cilia and the smaller 130 kDa one is only abundant in the testis. In male germ cells, IFT172 is highly expressed in the manchette of elongating spermatids. A germ cell-specific Ift172 mutant mice were generated, and the mutant mice did not show gross abnormalities. There was no difference in testis/body weight between the control and mutant mice, but more than half of the adult homozygous mutant males were infertile and associated with abnormally developed germ cells in the spermiogenesis phase. The cauda epididymides in mutant mice contained less developed sperm that showed significantly reduced motility, and these sperm had multiple defects in ultrastructure and bent tails. In the mutant mice, testicular expression levels of some IFT components, including IFT20, IFT27, IFT74, IFT81 and IFT140, and a central apparatus protein SPAG16L were not changed. However, expression levels of ODF2, a component of the outer dense fiber, and AKAP4, a component of fibrous sheath, and two IFT components IFT25 and IFT57 were dramatically reduced. Our findings demonstrate that IFT172 is essential for normal male fertility and spermiogenesis in mice, probably by modulating specific IFT proteins and transporting/assembling unique accessory structural proteins into spermatozoa.