Summary. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding activity of normal white and abnormal yellow turkey semen was quantitated by disc-gel electrophoresis in the presence of [3H]DHT. White seminal plasma had three peaks of activity (R f = 0·3, 0·5 and 0·8). Yellow seminal plasma had a greater protein concentration and [3H]DHT binding activity averaging 32·5 ± 7·93 pmol DHT/ml compared with 1·45 ± 0·3 pmol DHT/ml for white seminal plasma. The majority of [3H]DHT binding was localized at R f = 0·5 for the yellow seminal plasma. When labelled samples were separated by electrophoresis on unlabelled gels, the only peak of activity was at R f = 0·5. Blood serum contained 3 peaks of activity (R f = 0·4, 0·5, and 0·8). We conclude that a seminal plasma androgen-binding protein is present in the domestic turkey, and in males with yellow semen syndrome androgen-binding activity is increased.
R. A. Hess, G. P. Birrenkott Jr and R. J. Thurston
G. C. HARRIS Jr, R. J. THURSTON and J. CUNDALL
The ultrastructure of the fowl spermatozoon was examined before and after direct immersion in liquid nitrogen (−196° C). Two cryopreservatives, glycerol and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO), were added to an isotonic monosodium glutamate diluent to give a final concentration of 8% or 16%.
The changes in morphology attributed to rapid freeze—thaw were as follows: (1) extensive divergence of the cytoplasmic membrane in the majority of the spermatozoa throughout their entire length; (2) complete destruction of the cytoplasmic membrane surrounding the acrosomal region in some spermatozoa with subsequent release of the contents of the acrosomal cap into the diluted seminal plasma; (3) release of the mitochondria of the mid-piece into the surrounding media upon destruction of the cytoplasmic membrane. The axoneme complex remained intact even though the cytoplasmic membrane was completely destroyed.
No differences were noted before freezing between spermatozoa suspended in the control glutamate diluent alone and diluents containing a cryopreservative. The addition of glycerol and the highest level of DMSO did not prevent extensive damage to the membranes during rapid freezing and thawing. Reduced membrane damage indicated that the lower level of 8% DMSO partially protected some spermatozoa.
R. J. THURSTON, R. A. HESS, H. V. BIELLIER, H. K. ADLDINGER and R. F. SOLORZANO
Abnormal cells and macrophages found in white and yellow turkey semen were studied by electron microscopy. Yellow semen contained many abnormal cells, most of which were large and round or smaller and ellipsoidal. It was concluded that they were aberrant spermatids, with differentiation being more complete in the smaller cells. Only a few cells of the smaller type were detected in normal white semen. Macrophages were occasionally seen in white semen but were numerous in yellow semen. Phagocytic vacuoles of these cells contained structural elements of spermatozoa and abnormal spermatids. Virus particles were not detected in any of the seminal cells observed.
Ultrastructure studies of cultured testicular cells obtained from several of the turkeys examined showed the presence of intranuclear Herpesvirus particles in germinal cells. Macrophages from the testicular cultures seldom were seen with intranuclear Herpesvirus, although these cells commonly were found with Herpesvirus particles and cellular debris contained within phagocytic vacuoles.