Summary. Spermatozoa from the ductus deferens of a naked-tail armadillo, Cabassous unicinctus, were arranged in rouleaux. The sperm heads were wafer-thin, with the acrosome and nucleus flattened together. Dense subacrosomal material in the equatorial segment of the acrosomal region was present on one surface but not on the other.
E. Heath, N. Schaeffer, D. A. Meritt Jr and R. S. Jeyendran
N. E. Schaffer, M. Cranfield, A. T. Fazleabas and R. S. Jeyendran
Summary. The bladder of 6 lion-tailed macaques was emptied and flushed with sterile saline. TALP-Hepes buffer was infused and the animals were electroejaculated. After electroejaculation, the semen quality was determined in the ejaculate and the bladder infusate. Of the 15 ejaculates analysed, a mean (±s.e.m.) sperm count of 133·8(±30·7) × 106 with 69·5 (± 6·0)% motility was obtained in the infusate as compared to the sperm count of 72·4 (±38·6) × 106 with significantly lower (47·7 ± 5·8%) motility in the ejaculate.
Keywords: macaque; retroejaculation; ejaculation; sperm viability
R. S. Jeyendran, H. H. Van der Ven, M. Perez-Pelaez, B. G. Crabo and L. J. D. Zaneveld
Summary. The objective of this study was to develop a relatively simple test to evaluate the functional integrity of the membranes of human spermatozoa. As in some other species, human spermatozoa 'swell' under hypo-osmotic conditions due to the influx of water and the expansion of the membranes. A mixture of equal parts of fructose and sodium citrate (150 mosmol) with calculated ionic strength of 0·15 resulted in a maximal number of clearly identifiable swollen spermatozoa. Only small variations were seen when different aliquants of the same semen samples were separately evaluated. A high correlation (r = 0·94) was obtained between expected and observed values of swollen spermatozoa when known amounts of heat-treated spermatozoa, unable to undergo swelling, were added to untreated spermatozoa. A good correlation (r = 0·90) was also observed between the % spermatozoa in a semen sample that were capable of undergoing swelling and the % of denuded hamster oocytes that were penetrated by capacitated spermatozoa from the same semen sample. By contrast, the correlations between % sperm swelling in ejaculates and % normal sperm forms, % motile spermatozoa and % spermatozoa that do not stain with eosin-Y (supravital stain) in the same ejaculates were 0·30,0·61 and 0·52, respectively. Therefore, the hypo-osmotic swelling technique to evaluate the functional integrity of the sperm membrane appears to give high repeatability and accuracy and is closely correlated to the in-vitro fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. It may be a useful addition to the standard semen analysis.