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E. Heath, N. Schaeffer, D. A. Meritt Jr, and R. S. Jeyendran

Summary. Spermatozoa from the ductus deferens of a naked-tail armadillo, Cabassous unicinctus, were arranged in rouleaux. The sperm heads were wafer-thin, with the acrosome and nucleus flattened together. Dense subacrosomal material in the equatorial segment of the acrosomal region was present on one surface but not on the other.

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N. E. Schaffer, M. Cranfield, A. T. Fazleabas, and R. S. Jeyendran

Summary. The bladder of 6 lion-tailed macaques was emptied and flushed with sterile saline. TALP-Hepes buffer was infused and the animals were electroejaculated. After electroejaculation, the semen quality was determined in the ejaculate and the bladder infusate. Of the 15 ejaculates analysed, a mean (±s.e.m.) sperm count of 133·8(±30·7) × 106 with 69·5 (± 6·0)% motility was obtained in the infusate as compared to the sperm count of 72·4 (±38·6) × 106 with significantly lower (47·7 ± 5·8%) motility in the ejaculate.

Keywords: macaque; retroejaculation; ejaculation; sperm viability

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R. S. Jeyendran, H. H. Van der Ven, M. Perez-Pelaez, B. G. Crabo, and L. J. D. Zaneveld

Summary. The objective of this study was to develop a relatively simple test to evaluate the functional integrity of the membranes of human spermatozoa. As in some other species, human spermatozoa 'swell' under hypo-osmotic conditions due to the influx of water and the expansion of the membranes. A mixture of equal parts of fructose and sodium citrate (150 mosmol) with calculated ionic strength of 0·15 resulted in a maximal number of clearly identifiable swollen spermatozoa. Only small variations were seen when different aliquants of the same semen samples were separately evaluated. A high correlation (r = 0·94) was obtained between expected and observed values of swollen spermatozoa when known amounts of heat-treated spermatozoa, unable to undergo swelling, were added to untreated spermatozoa. A good correlation (r = 0·90) was also observed between the % spermatozoa in a semen sample that were capable of undergoing swelling and the % of denuded hamster oocytes that were penetrated by capacitated spermatozoa from the same semen sample. By contrast, the correlations between % sperm swelling in ejaculates and % normal sperm forms, % motile spermatozoa and % spermatozoa that do not stain with eosin-Y (supravital stain) in the same ejaculates were 0·30,0·61 and 0·52, respectively. Therefore, the hypo-osmotic swelling technique to evaluate the functional integrity of the sperm membrane appears to give high repeatability and accuracy and is closely correlated to the in-vitro fertilizing ability of spermatozoa. It may be a useful addition to the standard semen analysis.