The multimodular matricellular protein thrombospondin-1 (THBS1) was among the first identified endogenous antiangiogenic molecules. Recent studies have shown THBS1-mediated suppression of angiogenesis and other critical activities for corpus luteum (CL) regression. THBS1 is specifically induced by prostaglandin F2alpha in mature CL undergoing regression, whereas luteinizing signals such as luteinizing hormone and insulin reduced its expression. THBS1 interacts both synergistically and antagonistically with other essential luteal factors, such as fibroblast growth factor 2, transforming growth factor beta1, and serpin family E member 1, to promote vascular instability, apoptosis, and matrix remodeling during luteal regression. Expression of THBS1 is also downregulated by pregnancy recognition signals to maintain the CL during early pregnancy. This dynamic pattern of luteal expression, the extensive interactivity with other luteal factors, and strong antiangiogenic and proapoptotic activities indicate that THBS1 is a major determinant of CL fate.
Svetlana Farberov, Raghavendra Basavaraja and Rina Meidan
Raghavendra Basavaraja, Emilia Przygrodzka, Bartosz Pawlinski, Zdzislaw Gajewski, Monika M Kaczmarek and Rina Meidan
Interferon-tau (IFNT), a maternal recognition of pregnancy (MRP) signals in domestic ruminants, suppresses the release of luteolytic pulses of uterine prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a), thus extending the corpus luteum (CL) life span. We hypothesized that IFNT also exerts anti-luteolytic actions in bovine CL. To examine the direct effects of IFNT on bovine CL, luteal slices and enriched luteal endothelial cells (LECs) were utilized. We found that recombinant ovine IFNT (roIFNT) markedly elevates interferon-associated genes (STAT1, STAT2 and IRF9) and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs: MX2, ISG15 and OAS1Y) in both models. Furthermore, IFNT time-dependently induced STAT1 phosphorylation in LECs without affecting total STAT1. roIFNT-stimulated viable LECs numbers and the knockdown of protein inhibitor of activated STAT1 (PIAS1) abolished this effect, suggesting that PIAS1 may mediate the proliferative effect of IFNT. IFNT significantly downregulated luteolytic genes such as TGFB1, thrombospondin-1 (THBS1), endothelin-1 (EDN1) and serpin family E member-1 (SERPINE1) in LECs. However, less robust effects were observed in luteal slices. Moreover, PGF2a alone induced THBS1, SERPINE1 and EDN1 mRNA in CL slices whereas in the presence of IFNT, THBS1 and SERPINE1 stimulation was abolished. Collectively, these results indicate that IFNT acts via STAT1- IRF9-dependent and independent pathways and affects diverse luteal functions. Most interestingly, this study suggests the existence of an anti-luteolytic effect of IFNT in bovine CL, namely, inhibiting key PGF2a-induced luteolytic genes. The proliferative effect of IFNT may constitute an additional mechanism that promotes luteal cell survival, thus, extending the luteal life span during early pregnancy in cows.