Recent studies have shown that the testis is producing several biologically active peptides, namely the F5- and the NC1-peptides from laminin-γ3 and collagen α3 (IV) chain, respectively, that promotes blood-testis barrier (BTB) remodeling and also elongated spermatid release at spermiation. Also the LG3/4/5-peptide from laminin-α2 chain also promotes BTB integrity which is likely being used for the assembly of a “new” BTB behind preleptotene spermatocytes under transport at the immunological barrier. These findings thus provides a new opportunity for investigators to better understand the biology of spermatogenesis. Herein, we briefly summarize these recent findings and provide a critique update and a hypothetical model which can serve as the framework for studies in the years to come.
Huitao Li, Shiwen Liu, Siwen Wu, Linxi Li, Renshan Ge and C Yan Cheng
Jingjing Guo, Hongyu Zhou, Zhijian Su, Bingbing Chen, Guimin Wang, Claire Q F Wang, Yunfei Xu and Ren-Shan Ge
The objective of this study was to purify cells in the Leydig cell lineage following regeneration after ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) treatment and compare their steroidogenic capacity. Regenerated progenitor (RPLCs), immature (RILCs), and adult Leydig cells (RALCs) were isolated from testes 21, 28 and 56 days after EDS treatment respectively. Production rates for androgens including androsterone and 5α-androstane-17β, 3α-diol (DIOL), testosterone and androstenedione were measured in RPLCs, RILCs and RALCs in media after 3-h in vitro culture with 100 ng/ml LH. Steady-state mRNA levels of steroidogenic enzymes and their activities were measured in freshly isolated cells. Compared to adult Leydig cells (ALCs) isolated from normal 90-day-old rat testes, which primarily produce testosterone (69.73%), RPLCs and RILCs primarily produced androsterone (70.21%) and DIOL (69.79%) respectively. Leydig cells isolated from testes 56 days post-EDS showed equivalent capacity of steroidogenesis to ALCs and primarily produced testosterone (72.90%). RPLCs had cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 and 17α-hydroxylase but had almost no detectable 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activities, while RILCs had increased 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 3 and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 activities. Because RPLCs and RILCs had higher 5α-reductase 1 and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities they produced mainly 5α-reduced androgens. Real-time PCR confirmed the similar trends for the expressions of these steroidogenic enzymes. In conclusion, the purified RPLCs, RILCs and RALCs are similar to those of their counterparts during rat pubertal development.