Resistin, initially identified in adipose tissue and macrophages, was implicated in insulin resistance. Recently, its mRNA was found in hypothalamo–pituitary axis and rat testis, leading us to hypothesize that resistin may be expressed in ovary. In this study, we determined in rats and cows 1) the characterization of resistin in ovary by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, and immunohistochemistry and 2) the effects of recombinant resistin (10, 100, 333, and 667 ng/ml)±IGF1 (76 ng/ml) on steroidogenesis, proliferation, and signaling pathways of granulosa cells (GC) measured by enzyme immunoassay, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and immunoblotting respectively. We observed that resistin mRNA and protein were present in several bovine and rat ovarian cells. Nevertheless, only bovine GC abundantly expressed resistin mRNA and protein. Resistin treatment decreased basal but not IGF1-induced progesterone (P<0.05; whatever the dose) and estradiol (P<0.005; for 10 and 333 ng/ml) production by bovine GC. In rats, resistin (10 ng/ml) increased basal and IGF1-induced progesterone secretion (P<0.0001), without effect on estradiol release. We found no effect of resistin on rat GC proliferation. Conversely, in cows, resistin increased basal proliferation (P<0.0001; for 100–667 ng/ml) and decreased IGF1-induced proliferation of GC (P<0.0001; for 10–333 ng/ml) associated with a decrease in cyclin D2 protein level (P<0.0001). Finally, resistin stimulated AKT and p38-MAPK phosphorylation in both species, ERK1/2-MAPK phosphorylation in rats and had the opposite effect on the AMPK pathway (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results show that resistin is expressed in rat and bovine ovaries. Furthermore, it can modulate GC functions in basal state or in response to IGF1 in vitro.
Virginie Maillard, Pascal Froment, Christelle Ramé, Svetlana Uzbekova, Sébastien Elis and Joëlle Dupont
Ophélie Téteau, Manon Jaubert, Alice Desmarchais, Pascal Papillier, Aurélien Binet, Virginie Maillard and Sébastien Elis
Bisphenols, plasticisers used in food containers, can transfer to food. Bisphenol A (BPA) has been described as an endocrine disruptor and consequently banned from the food industry in several countries. It was replaced by a structural analogue, Bisphenol S (BPS). BPA action on the steroidogenesis is one of the mechanisms underlying its adverse effects on the efficiency of female reproduction. This study aimed to determine whether BPS is a safe alternative to BPA regarding GC functions. Antral follicles (2–6 mm), of approximatively 1000 adult ewe ovaries, were aspired and GC purified. For 48 h, ovine GC were treated with BPA or BPS (from 1 nM to 200 µM) and the effects on cell viability, proliferation, steroid production, steroidogenic enzyme expression and signalling pathways were investigated. Dosages at and greater than 100 μM BPA and 10 µM BPS decreased progesterone secretion by 39% (P < 0.001) and 22% (P = 0.040), respectively. BPA and BPS 10 μM and previously mentioned concentrations increased oestradiol secretion two-fold (P < 0.001 and P = 0.082, respectively). Only 100 µM BPA induced a decrease (P < 0.001) in gene expression of the enzymes of steroidogenesis involved in the production of progesterone. BPA reduced MAPK3/1 phosphorylation and ESR1 and ESR2 gene expression, effects that were not observed with BPS. BPA and BPS altered steroidogenesis of ovine GC. Thus, BPS does not appear to be a safe alternative for BPA. Further investigations are required to elucidate BPA and BPS mechanisms of action.