Summary. Total lipid concentration was elevated in the seminal plasma of oligo- and azoospermic men. The total cholesterol content was comparatively more in the seminal plasma of azoospermic men than in that of normo- and oligospermic men. In general, infertility was associated with increased seminal concentrations for most of the neutral lipid classes. However, total phospholipids and most of the phospholipid classes were diminished in the seminal plasma of oligo- and azoospermic men and in the spermatozoa of oligospermic men. We suggest that there is a positive correlation between seminal phospholipids and fertility and a negative correlation between seminal neutral lipids and fertility.