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SHANTA S. RAO

During the VIth International Planned Parenthood Federation Conference held at Delhi in February 1959 it was noticeable that only two Indian workers attended the Scientific Session, whereas there were many visitors from abroad, including zoologists, veterinary research workers, biochemists and physicians. The relative lack of participation by Indian scientists seemed evidently to be due to the fact that the organizers were not aware of the important research on reproductive physiology that was being carried out in many different institutions in India, i.e. departments of physiology, pharmacology, obstetrics and gynaecology of medical colleges, university departments of zoology, veterinary colleges and medical research institutions. Many of us thought that this omission was due to the fact that at that time (1959) there was no common forum in India at which zoologists, biochemists, clinical research workers, physiologists, veterinary research workers and pisciculturists could meet to discuss reproductive
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USHA M. JOSHI and SHANTA S. RAO

Summary.

The effect of Enovid, the well-known contraceptive agent, on the lactation performance has been studied in the mouse, the rat and the rabbit. Two dose levels were employed, one corresponding to twice the human dose, on the basis of mg/kg body weight and the other equivalent to twenty times the human dose. Growth curve of the litter was used as an index of efficacy of lactation. It was observed that, in rats, the steroid at both the dose levels caused 10 to 20% inhibition in growth rate of the young, while in rabbits there was an enhancement. The compound did not seem to have any effect on the lactation of mice. The amount of inhibition or enhancement was not related to the dose employed. The reasons for the differential response in the three species have been discussed.

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A. R. SHETH and SHANTA S. RAO

Summary.

The maltase activity of human seminal plasma was studied by paper chromatographic and glucose oxidase methods and expressed in terms of the glucose liberated from the maltose substrate used. The specificity of maltase was established by selectively inhibiting the enzyme activity with tris buffer. Seminal maltase and amylase were separated and partially purified. Purified maltase preparation did not exhibit any amylase, maltose phosphorylase or transglucosidase activity. The maltase activity of semen is predominantly associated with seminal plasma and proceeds at maximal velocity at pH 6·0. The prostate gland seems to contribute most of the enzyme activity to the seminal plasma. The significance of the presence of maltase in seminal plasma and also in cervical mucus is discussed.

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S. B. MOODBIDRI, A. R. SHETH and SHANTA S. RAO

Summary.

Binding of human placental [125I]lactogen to homogenates of the buffalo CL was studied. Differential centrifugation studies revealed the existence of hormone-binding components in fractions of the CL homogenate sedimenting at 800 g, 10,000 g and 100,000 g. The binding was affected by incubation time and hormone concentration. The hormone-binding components were heat-labile and susceptible to proteolytic enzymes.

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A. R. SHETH, K. P. GUNAGA and SHANTA S. RAO

Summary.

The amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity of human seminal plasma was studied using its specific substrate, α-glucosyl Schardinger dextrin. The enzyme activity of semen is predominantly associated with the seminal plasma and proceeds at maximum velocity at pH 5·8 to 6·0. The secretions of seminal vesicles and testis seem to contribute most of the enzyme activity to the seminal plasma. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is significantly lower in azoospermic samples as compared to those with a good sperm count.

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K. P. GUNAGA, A. R. SHETH and SHANTA S. RAO

Summary.

Testes of Wistar rats contain at least three organ-specific antigens as revealed by the gel diffusion analysis. Antiserum to rat testis absorbed with serum and liver cross-reacts with the extracts of epididymis, brain and ovary. Heating at over 60° C destroys the combining power of all the three testis-specific antigens. Two of the three organ-specific antigens of the Wistar strain of rats are common to two antigens present in the testes of man, sheep, rabbit, hamster, guinea-pig and mouse.

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SAFIA R. MUNSHI, TARALA V. PURANDARE and SHANTA S. RAO

Summary.

The effect of an antiserum to ovine lh was studied on implantation and deciduoma formation in mice. Administration of the lh antiserum on Day 4 of pregnancy and pseudopregnancy inhibited, respectively, the implantation and decidual cell reaction. The administration of progesterone at the same time as the antiserum overcame the inhibitory effects of the antibodies to lh. The results of these studies indicate that the anti-implantation activity of the lh antiserum is manifest by its inhibition of progesterone synthesis by the cl.

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Umashashi C. Hegde, Padma R. Shastry and Shanta S. Rao

Summary. Dithiothreitol was used to decondense the nuclear chromatin before staining human spermatozoa with quinacrine for the F body present in Y-bearing spermatozoa. In unseparated fractions and those enriched in X- or Y-bearing spermatozoa, the number of spermatozoa with F bodies increased by 2–9% after dithiothreitol treatment.

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K. P. GUNAGA, M. CHITRA RAO, A. R. SHETH and SHANTA S. RAO

Summary.

A study was carried out to assess the levels of glycogen and glycogen-degrading enzymes in rat testes from the fetal period to old age in order to elucidate the rôle of glycogen in gonadal maturation. Simultaneously, the capacity of the differentiating testes to secrete androgen was investigated using the maltase activity of the dorsolateral prostate as an index. High levels of glycogen and glycogen-degrading enzymes were observed to be present in the testes and dorsolateral prostate during fetal life. This suggests that glycogen serves as an important energy source for the testes during fetal development.

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T. N. S. UDUPA, USHA M. JOSHI, SHANTA S. RAO and D. S. PARDANANI

Infertility in certain males has been attributed to the presence of circulating autoantibodies to spermatozoa (Wilson, 1954; Rao & Sadri, 1959; Hanafiah, Epstein & Sobrero, 1972). Doubts have been expressed, however, about the clinical significance of these antibodies because they have been observed to be present in some fertile men (Fjallbrant, 1967; S. S. Rao, T. N. S. Udupa & S. S. Dikshit, unpublished observations). Various immunological methods, such as the sperm agglutination technique of Kibrick (Kibrick, Belding & Merril, 1952), microagglutination of spermatozoa (Franklin & Dukes, 1964), passive haemagglutination test (Rao & Sadri, 1959; Rangnekar & Rao, 1972), have been employed for detecting the presence of anti-sperm antibodies. It is possible that the tests used do not detect clinically signficant levels of antibodies in fertile men possessing such antibodies. Another possibility is that the spermspecific antibodies, though present in the blood, might not find access to the reproductive tract