Endometriosis is an estrogen-dependent disease. Previous research has shown that abnormal enzymes associated with estrogen (E2) metabolism and an increased number of mast cells (MCs) in endometriomas are implicated in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. However, it remains unclear how MCs mediate the role of E2 in endometriosis. Accordingly, we investigated whether E2 was associated with the number of MCs, and the rate of degranulation, in local ovarian endometriomas, as well as the role of E2 on MCs during the pathogenesis of endometriosis. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry, we found that concentrations of E2, and the number and activity of MCs, were significantly higher in ovarian endometriomas than in controls, and that these parameters were correlated with the severity of endometriosis-associated dysmenorrhea. By measuring the release of hexosaminidase, we found that the rate of RBL2H3 cell degranulation increased after E2 treatment. Furthermore, activation of RBL2H3 cells by E2 was found to trigger the release of biologically active nerve growth factor, which promotes neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells and also sensitizes dorsal root ganglion cells via upregulation of Nav1.8 and transient receptor potential cation channel (subfamily V member 1) expression levels. When treated with E2, endometriotic cells could promote RBL2H3 cell recruitment by upregulating expression levels of stem cell factor, transforming growth factor-β and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1; these observations were not evident with control endometrial cells. Thus, elevated E2 concentrations may be a key factor for degranulation and recruitment of MCs in ovarian endometriomas, which play a key role in endometriosis-associated dysmenorrhea.
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Tian-Hong Zhu, Shao-Jie Ding, Tian-Tian Li, Li-Bo Zhu, Xiu-Feng Huang, and Xin-Mei Zhang
Xuan-Tong Liu, Hui-Ting Sun, Zhong-Fang Zhang, Ru-Xia Shi, Li-Bing Liu, Jia-Jun Yu, Wen-Jie Zhou, Chun-Jie Gu, Shao-Liang Yang, Yu-Kai Liu, Hui-Li Yang, Feng-Xuan Xu, and Ming-Qing Li
It has been reported that the impaired cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells and abnormal cytokines that are changed by the interaction between ectopic endometrial cells and immune cells is indispensable for the initiation and development of endometriosis (EMS). However, the mechanism of NK cells dysfunction in EMS remains largely unclear. Here, we found that NK cells in peritoneal fluid from women with EMS highly expressed indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Furthermore, IDO+NK cells possessed lower NKp46 and NKG2D but higher IL-10 than that of IDO-NK. Co-culture with endometrial stromal cells (nESCs) from healthy control or ectopic ESCs (eESCs) from women with EMS led to a significant increase in the IDO level in NK cells from peripheral blood, particularly eESCs, and an anti-TGF-β neutralizing antibody suppressed these effects in vitro. NK cells co-cultured with ESC more preferentially inhibited the viability of nESCs than eESCs did, and pretreating with 1-methyl-tryptophan (1-MT), an IDO inhibitor, reversed the inhibitory effect of NK cells on eESC viability. These data suggest that ESCs induce IDO+NK cells differentiation partly by TGF-β and that IDO further restricts the cytotoxicity of NK cells in response to eESCs, which provides a potential therapeutic strategy for EMS patients, particularly those with a high number of impaired cytotoxic IDO+NK cells.
Jun Shao, Bing Zhang, Jia-Jun Yu, Chun-Yan Wei, Wen-Jie Zhou, Kai-Kai Chang, Hui-Li Yang, Li-Ping Jin, Xiao-Yong Zhu, and Ming-Qing Li
Macrophages play an important role in the origin and development of endometriosis. Estrogen promoted the growth of decidual stromal cells (DSCs) by downregulating the level of interleukin (IL)-24. The aim of this study was to clarify the role and mechanism of IL-24 and its receptors in the regulation of biological functions of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) during endometriosis. The level of IL-24 and its receptors in endometrium was measured by immunohistochemistry. In vitro analysis was used to measure the level of IL-24 and receptors and the biological behaviors of ESCs. Here, we found that the expression of IL-24 and its receptors (IL-20R1 and IL-20R2) in control endometrium was significantly higher than that in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis. Recombinant human IL-24 (rhIL-24) significantly inhibited the viability of ESCs in a dosage-dependent manner. Conversely, blocking IL-24 with anti-IL-24 neutralizing antibody promoted ESCs viability. In addition, rhIL-24 could downregulate the invasiveness of ESCs in vitro. After co-culture, macrophages markedly reduced the expression of IL-24 and IL-20R1 in ESCs, but not IL-22R1. Moreover, macrophages significantly restricted the inhibitory effect of IL-24 on the viability, invasion, the proliferation relative gene Ki-67, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclooxygenase2 (COX-2), and the stimulatory effect on the tumor metastasis suppressor gene CD82 in ESCs. These results indicate that the abnormally low level of IL-24 in ESCs possibly induced by macrophages may lead to the enhancement of ESCs’ proliferation and invasiveness and contribute to the development of endometriosis.
Hai-Yan Hou, Xi Wang, Qi Yu, Hong-Yi Li, Shao-Jie Li, Rui-Yi Tang, Zai-Xin Guo, Ya-Qiong Chen, Chun-Xiu Hu, Zhi-Juan Yang, Wen-ke Zhang, and Yan Qin
Decline in successful conception decreases more rapidly after 38 years of age owing to follicular depletion and decreased oocyte quality. However, limited information is available regarding the underlying mechanism and the useful treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of growth hormone supplementation on oocyte maturation in vivo in aged and young mice and to determine its effect on mitochondrial function. The influence of three different doses of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) (0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks before ovarian stimulation was analyzed. Superovulated oocytes were released from the oviduct of 12-week-old and 40-week-old female C57BL/6J mice 14–16 h after administration of human chorionic gonadotropin. Ovarian follicle and morphological analysis and oocyte maturation parameters were then evaluated. This study is the first, to our knowledge, to report that medium- and high-dose rhGH significantly increases antral follicles in aged mice but anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels. Furthermore, derived oocytes, MII-stage oocyte rate, ATP levels, mitochondrial membrane potential and frequencies of homogeneous mitochondrial distribution increased. In contrast, in both aged and young mice, the mtDNA copy numbers per oocyte were similar before rhGH administration, and upon saline administration, they did not differ significantly. We conclude that medium-dose rhGH supplementation before standard ovarian stimulation regimens improves oocyte quality in aged mice, probably by enhancing mitochondrial functionality.
Hui-Hui Shen, Cheng-Jie Wang, Xin-Yan Zhang, Yan-Ran Sheng, Shao-Liang Yang, Zi-Meng Zheng, Jia-Lu Shi, Xue-Min Qiu, Feng Xie, and Ming-Qing Li
Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1, encoded by the HMOX1 gene) is the rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes heme degradation, and it has been reported to exert antioxidative effects. Recently, decidualization has been reported to confer resistance to environmental stress signals, protecting against oxidative stress. However, the effects and regulatory mechanism of HO-1 in decidual stromal cells (DSCs) during early pregnancy remain unknown. Here, we verified that the levels of HO-1 and heme in DSCs are increased compared with those in endometrial stromal cells. Additionally, the upregulation of HIF1A expression led to increased HMOX1 expression in DSCs possibly via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (encoded by the NFE2L2 gene). However, addition of the competitive HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX resulted in an increase in HIF1A expression. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased the cell viability of DSCs in vitro, and upregulated the level of heme. As an HO-1 inducer, cobalt protoporphyrin IX decreased ROS production and significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on cell viability. More importantly, patients with unexplained spontaneous abortion had low levels of HO-1 that were insufficient to protect against oxidative stress. This study suggests that the upregulation of HO-1 expression via HIF1A protects DSCs against excessive heme-mediated oxidative stress. Furthermore, the excessive oxidative stress injury and impaired viability of DSCs associated with decreased HO-1 expression should be associated with the occurrence and/or development of spontaneous abortion.