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Rui Hua, Yao Zhou, Biao Wu, Zhongwei Huang, Yongtong Zhu, Yali Song, Yanhong Yu, Hong Li and Song Quan

Triclosan (TCS) exists ubiquitously in the environment. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that TCS exerts endocrine disruptive effects on reproduction, but data from human populations are limited and conflicting. The objective of our study was to investigate whether high urinary TCS concentration is adversely associated with early reproductive outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). This prospective cohort study was conducted from September 2015 to June 2016, including 156 infertile women undergoing their first IVF-ET cycle. Two spot urine samples were collected prior to oocyte retrieval for TCS detection using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). Linear regression model and binary logistic regression model were used to evaluate the association between urinary TCS concentrations and IVF outcomes. The intake of aquaculture food may have positive influences on urinary TCS concentrations. After adjustment for age, body mass index (BMI), baseline follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), antral follicle count (AFC) and smoking status, a significant decrease of top quality embryo formation and implantation rate was observed in patients with urinary TCS concentration greater than or equal to the median level (0.045 μmol/mol Cr). We concluded that TCS exposure may exert negative effects during early stages of human reproduction.

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Yue-Mao Zheng, Hui-Ying Zhao, Xiao-E Zhao, Fu-Sheng Quan, Song Hua, Xiao-Ying He, Jun Liu, Xiao-Ning He and Hui Lin

We assessed the developmental ability of embryos cloned from porcine neural stem (NS) cells, amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS) cells, fetal fibroblast cells, adult fibroblast, and mammary gland epithelial cells. The five cell lines were transfected with enhanced green fluorescence protein gene respectively using lipofection. NS and AFS cells were induced to differentiate in vitro. Stem cells and their differentiated cells were harvested for analysis of the markers using RT-PCR. The five cell lines were used for nuclear transfer. The two-cell stage-cloned embryos derived from each cell line were transferred into the oviducts of surrogate mothers. The results showed that both NS and AFS cells expressed POU5F1, THY1 and SOX2, and they were both induced to differentiate into astrocyte (GFAP+), oligodendrocyte (GalC+), neuron (NF+, ENO2+, and MAP2+), adipocyte (LPL+ and PPARG-D+), osteoblast (osteonectin+ and osteocalcin+), myocyte (MYF6+ and MYOD+), and endothelium (PECAM1+, CD34+, CDH5+, and NOS3+) respectively. Seven cloned fetuses (28 days and 32 days) derived from stem cells were obtained. The in vitro developmental ability (morula–blastocyst rate was 28.26–30.07%) and in vivo developmental ability (pregnancy rate were 1.67–2.17%) of the embryos cloned from stem cells were higher (P<0.05) than that of the embryos cloned from somatic cells (morula–blastocyst rate was 16.27–19.28% and pregnancy rate was 0.00%), which suggests that the undifferentiated state of the donor cells increases cloning efficiency.

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Mian Liu, Xia Chen, Qing-Xian Chang, Rui Hua, Yan-Xing Wei, Li-Ping Huang, Yi-xin Liao, Xiao-Jing Yue, Hao-Yue Hu, Fei Sun, Si-Jia Jiang, Song Quan and Yan-Hong Yu

Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are important mediators of cell-to-cell communication involved in the successful establishment of a pregnancy. Human decidual stromal cells play a key role in regulating trophoblast invasion. Nevertheless, the regulatory functions of decidual stromal cells-derived sEVs in human trophoblast cells are still unclear. In this study, primary human decidual stromal cells were isolated, and immortalized human endometrial stromal cell line (HESCs) were decidualized into human decidual stromal cells (HDSCs) using hormonal cocktail containing medroxy progesterone 17-acetate (MPA), estrogen and cAMP analog. HDSC-sEVs were isolated from both primary human decidual stromal cells and immortal HDSCs, respectively, and identified by transmission electron microscopy and western blotting. EV uptake assay indicated that HDSC-sEVs could be uptaken by trophoblast cells. HDSC-sEVs could increase the invasiveness and the expression level of N-cadherin of trophoblast cells with elevated phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3 in the cells. Silencing of N-cadherin could block cell invasion induced by HDSC-sEVs, while knockdown of SMAD2 and SMAD3 could inhibit the upregulation of N-cadherin in trophoblast cells. Taken together, our results suggested a regulatory effect of HDSC-sEVs in the invasion of trophoblast cells, and HDSC-sEVs may be important mediators of trophoblasts during embryo implantation and placentation.