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T. H. BRINSFIELD and H. W. HAWK

Summary.

Motility in vitro was greatest in strips of myometrium from oestrous ewes, intermediate in strips from ovariectomized ewes and least in strips from luteal phase ewes. The presence of a spiral in the uterine lumen in vivo increased the amplitude of contractions for ewes of each endocrine state; the increase was greatest for ovariectomized ewes. Frequency of contractions was not changed significantly. The increased amplitude was localized for the most part to the uterine horn containing the spiral.

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T. H. BRINSFIELD and H. W. HAWK

Summary.

The direction of uterine contractions in vivo was studied in oestrous ewes by recording the motility of exteriorized uteri on cine film. In eight control ewes, 58% of 1156 contractions moved towards the oviduct, while 16% moved towards the cervix. In eight ewes with a plastic spiral in the lumen of one horn, only 17% of 927 contractions moved towards the oviduct; 70% of the contractions moved towards the cervix. The effect of the IUD on the direction of uterine contractions may explain inhibition of sperm transport and ovum fertilization in `IUD' ewes.

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H. W. HAWK, T. H. BRINSFIELD and H. F. RIGHTER

Summary.

Vascular permeability in uterine endometrium and serosa was measured in eighty-three ewes by the intensity of tissue blueing after intravenous injection of trypan blue dye. Permeability was high in oestrous ewes, intermediate in luteal-phase ewes and low in ovariectomized controls.

During experimental acute infection in the uterine lumen, endometrial vascular permeability increased greatly in ovariectomized ewes, but little or not at all in luteal-phase or oestrous ewes, indicating that endogenous ovarian hormones modified the vascular response. Serosal vascular permeability increased markedly in ewes of each endocrine state. Endocrine-controlled variation in the rate of leucocytic emigration was not entirely related to endometrial vascular permeability.

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T. H. BRINSFIELD, H. W. HAWK and H. F. RIGHTER

Summary.

Acute leucocytic responses to Escherichia coli placed in the uterine lumen were inhibited in oestrous ewes. The response was stimulated in ovariectomized ewes when they were injected with oestradiol, and was inhibited when they were injected with progesterone or with oestradiol and progesterone simultaneously. Uteri of ovariectomized ewes injected with both hormones were similar to those of oestrous ewes, being short and turgid, with high endometrial vascular porosity to circulating vital dye. The results support the suggestion that the inhibition of induced leucocytic emigration in the oestrous sheep uterus may be due to endogenous progestagen.

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T. H. BRINSFIELD, H. W. HAWK and E. C. LEFFEL

Summary.

Oestrous, luteal-phase and ovariectomized ewes were inoculated in the uterine lumen with Escherichia coli and killed 2, 4, 8 or 16 hr later. Intense leucocytic responses and closely associated bactericidal activity occurred within 4 hr in ovariectomized ewes, within 8 hr in oestrous ewes and within 16 hr in luteal-phase ewes. Intense leucocytic emigration was inhibited for 2 to 3 hr in oestrous ewes and considerably longer in luteal-phase ewes. No evidence was found that hormones inhibited the passage of extravasated leucocytes through endometrial stroma.

The incubation of E. coli in excised uteri failed to indicate that non-cellular bactericidal factors were normally present in uterine lumens of ovariectomized ewes.

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T. H. BRINSFIELD, M. V. CLARK and V. GERICH

Summary.

The ultrastructural changes of the endometrial stromal cells were quantified in twenty hamsters on Days 5, 6, 7 or 8 of pseudopregnancy. The mean percentage of cytoplasmic volume occupied by mitochondria, dense bodies, lysosomes and lipids each did not differ significantly during the 4 days (P>0·05). The quantity of rough endoplasmic reticulum was not significantly different on Days 5 and 6 (P>0·05), but significant increases occurred from Day 6 to Day 7 (P<0·001) and from Day 7 to Day 8 (P<0·001). The change in rough endoplasmic reticulum between Days 6 and 7 occurred during the stage of pseudopregnancy when the uterus influenced ovarian function.

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T. R. WRENN, JOAN R. WOOD, JOEL BITMAN and T. H. BRINSFIELD

Summary.

A new micro-bio-assay method involving the increase of vaginal glycogen in response to local administration has been used to determine the oestrogenic content of urine and blood. In addition, various other steroid hormones (progesterone, cortisol, desoxycorticosterone, testosterone) were given to test the specificity of the assay. In no instance did the other hormones elicit a glycogen response when given alone, nor did they enhance the response when given in combination with oestrogen.