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Ana Cecilia Mestre Citrinovitz, Laila Langer, Thomas Strowitzki and Ariane Germeyer

The differentiation of endometrial stromal cells (ESC), named decidualization, is essential to regulate trophoblast invasion and to support pregnancy establishment and progression. Decidualization follows ESC proliferation and it has been described that cell cycle arrest contributes to a proper decidualization. Interestingly, resveratrol, a natural compound derived from grapes with antioxidant properties, has been widely studied in relation to endometrial health. However, little is known about the effect of resveratrol supplementation during decidualization. Therefore, in this study we evaluate the effect of resveratrol supplementation during decidualization. We used primary and immortalized human ESC and we decidualized them in vitro with a decidualization cocktail containing medroxyprogesterone acetate, estradiol and 8-Bromo-cyclic AMP. Pre-decidualized cells were further treated with the decidualization cocktail supplemented with resveratrol. Our results show that resveratrol supplementation increased, in a dose-dependent manner, the expression levels of prolactin and IGFBP1 (RT-PCR and ELISA), indicating an enhanced in vitro decidualization of human ESC. This enhanced decidualization was accompanied by a decrease in cell proliferation (crystal violet and CellTiter proliferation assay) and by changes in the mRNA levels of key cell cycle regulators (RT-PCR). Furthermore, resveratrol supplementation seemed to enhance decidualization by reinforcing the effect of the decidualization cocktail. We believe that resveratrol could to be an effective supplementation to reinforce hormone action during human ESC decidualization and that further insights into resveratrol action and its interaction with estradiol and progesterone signaling pathways could facilitate the identification of new therapeutic strategies for the improvement of women’s health.

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Alexander Freis, Andreas Keller, Nicole Ludwig, Eckart Meese, Julia Jauckus, Julia Rehnitz, Edison Capp, Thomas Strowitzki and Ariane Germeyer

Main goal of this study is to detect the possible alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expression and the pathway targeted in plasma at the time of embryo transfer and pregnancy testing dependent on the assisted reproductive treatment (ART) outcome after ovarian hyperstimulation for in vitro fertilization. Changes in miRNA expression in plasma of women, who became pregnant (n = 6) vs women who failed implantation (n = 6) following day 5 embryo transfer (ET), were investigated at the day of ET and pregnancy testing (PT). Protein expression to validate the finding was performed with a sample size of n = 20 (10 per group) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses were performed using DIANA-miRPath, v3.0 software based on predicted targets by DIANA-microT-CDS. 4 miRNAs could be identified as possible biomarkers for implantation success. The 11 miRNAs showing the highest significant alterations were all associated with the regulation of WNT3 and WNT7a. While WNT7a presented with a significant decrease between ET and PT in case of ongoing pregnancy, women with implantation failure showed unaltered concentrations. WNT3 presented with a significant decrease in both groups. However, the loss of WNT3 between ET and PT was significantly higher in patients who became pregnant. Main limitation of this prospective study is its small sample size, defining it as a pilot analysis. To conclude, we could demonstrate a significant change in miRNA profile dependent on the ART outcome affecting Wnt pathway. Our findings indicate a possible prospective use of miRNA as biomarkers for implantation success.