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Vasiliki E. Mourikes and Jodi A Flaws

The ovaries play a critical role in female reproductive health because they are the site of oocyte maturation and sex steroid hormone production. The unique cellular processes that take place within the ovary make it a susceptible target for chemical mixtures. Herein, we review the available data regarding the effects of chemical mixtures on the ovary, focusing on development, folliculogenesis, and steroidogenesis. The chemical mixtures discussed include those to which women are exposed to environmentally, occupationally, and medically. Following a brief introduction to chemical mixture components, we describe the effects of chemical mixtures on ovarian development, folliculogenesis, and steroidogenesis. Further, we discuss the effects of chemical mixtures on corpora lutea and transgenerational outcomes. Identifying the effects of chemical mixtures on the ovaries is paramount to preventing and treating mixture-inducing toxicity of the ovary that has long-term consequences such as infertility and ovarian disease.