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Noelia P Di Giorgio, Marianne Bizzozzero-Hiriart, Carlos Libertun, and Victoria Lux-Lantos

Neuroendocrine control of reproduction involves the interplay of various factors that become active at some point along development. GnRH is the main neurohormone controlling reproduction and among the most important inputs modulating GnRH synthesis/secretion are GABA and kisspeptins. These interactions of GABA and kisspeptin in the control of GnRH secretion can take place by the presence of the receptors of both factors on the GnRH neuron or alternatively by the actions of GABA on kisspeptin neurons and/or the actions of kisspeptin on GABA neurons. Kisspeptin acts on the Kiss1R, a seven transmembrane domain, Gαq/11-coupled receptor that activates phospholipase C, although some Gαq/11-independent pathways in mediating part of the effects of Kiss1R activation have also been proposed. GABA acts through two kinds of receptors, ionotropic GABAA/C receptors involving a chloride channel and associated with fast inhibitory/stimulatory conductance and metabotropic GABAB receptors (GABABR) that are Gi/0 protein linked inducing late slow hyperpolarization. In this review, we aim to summarize the different ways in which these two actors, kisspeptin and GABA, interact to modulate GnRH secretion across the reproductive lifespan.

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Christine Tang, Kelly Marchand, Loretta Lam, Victoria Lux-Lantos, Sandra M Thyssen, June Guo, Adria Giacca, and Edith Arany

Dietary protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation in rats impairs β-cell function and mass in neonates and leads to glucose intolerance in adult offspring. Maternal taurine (Tau) supplementation during pregnancy in rats restores β-cell function and mass in neonates, but its long-term effects are unclear. The prevention of postnatal catch-up growth has been suggested to improve glucose tolerance in adult offspring of low-protein (LP)-fed mothers. The objective of this study was to examine the relative contribution of β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance to impaired glucose tolerance in 130-day-old rat offspring of LP-fed mothers and the effects of maternal Tau supplementation on β-cell function and insulin resistance in these offspring. Pregnant rats were fed i) control, ii) LP, and iii) LP+Tau diets during gestation and lactation. Offspring were given a control diet following weaning. A fourth group consisting of offspring of LP-fed mothers, maintained on a LP diet following weaning, was also studied (LP-all life). Insulin sensitivity in the offspring of LP-fed mothers was reduced in females but not in males. In both genders, LP exposure decreased β-cell function. Tau supplementation improved insulin sensitivity in females and β-cell function in males. The LP-all life diet improved β-cell function in males. We conclude that i) maternal Tau supplementation has persistent effects on improving glucose metabolism (β-cell function and insulin sensitivity) in adult rat offspring of LP-fed mothers and ii) increasing the amount of protein in the diet of offspring adapted to a LP diet after weaning may impair glucose metabolism (β-cell function) in a gender-specific manner.