MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA molecules of about 22 nucleotides that involved in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Evidence indicates that miRNAs play essential roles in endometriosis, pre-eclampsia, infertility and other reproductive system diseases. However, whether miRNAs are involved in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is unclear. In this work, we analysed the miRNA expression profiles in six pairs of villus or decidua from RSA patients and normal pregnancy (NP) women using a human miRNA microarray. Some of the chip results were confirmed by RT-qPCR. In the villi of RSA patients, expression of hsa-miR-184, hsa-miR-187 and hsa-miR-125b-2 was significantly higher, while expression of hsa-miR-520f, hsa-miR-3175 and hsa-miR-4672 was significantly lower, comparing with those of NP control. As well, a total of five miRNAs (hsa-miR-517c, hsa-miR-519a-1, hsa-miR-522, hsa-miR-520h and hsa-miR-184) were upregulated in the decidua of RSA patients. The target genes of these differentially expressed miRNAs were predicted by miRWalk, and we speculate a network of miRNA regulating RSA by target genes function on adhesion, apoptosis and angiogenesis. Our study may help clarify the molecular mechanisms which are involved in the progression of RSA, and provide a reference for future research.
Fulu Dong, Yuan Zhang, Fei Xia, Yi Yang, Sidong Xiong, Liping Jin and Jinping Zhang
Jun Yin, Bing Ni, Yi-dong Yang, Zhong-wei Tang, Zhi-qi Gao, Lan Feng, Wei-gong Liao and Yuqi Gao
Autophagy and apoptosis are interlocked in an extensive crosstalk. Our previous study demonstrated that hypotonic hypoxia induced marked apoptosis of a spermatocyte-derived cell line (GC-2). However, whether hypoxia-induced apoptosis is mediated by inhibition of autophagy under hypoxic conditions remains unclear. In this study, GC-2 cells were cultured in 1% O2 and harvested at different time points. Autophagy was determined by acridine orange staining, cyto-ID staining, mCherry-GFP-LC3B adenovirus transfection and Western blotting for various autophagy markers. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL staining, flow cytometry, JC-1 staining and Western blotting of apoptosis-related proteins. We found that hypoxia induced apoptosis of GC-2 cells through mitochondrial and death receptor pathways and inhibited autophagic flux in GC-2 cells in a time-dependent manner. However, while marked autolysosome formation was observed in GC-2 cells before 24 h culture in hypoxic conditions, apparent apoptosis was observed only after 24 h culture in hypoxic conditions. Caspase-8 siRNA treatment induced cell survival, accompanied by induction of the mature autophagosome, acidic vesicular organelle formation and autophagic flux. Furthermore, Beclin-1 overexpression markedly attenuated the impairment of spermatogenesis in mice by inhibiting apoptosis of spermatocytes. The results of this study demonstrate that hypoxia inhibits autophagy, which further enhances hypoxia-induced apoptosis of mouse spermatocytes by promoting caspase-8 activation in a time-dependent manner, suggesting that combined application of apoptosis inhibition and autophagy activation might be a therapeutic strategy for treating hypoxia-induced male infertility.