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Ravinder Anand-Ivell and Richard Ivell

. Therefore, because the testes are very actively differentiating at this vulnerable time, and because they are both producing and are themselves regulated by a very active hormonal system in this period of early gestation, environmental endocrine disruption

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Louise Krag Isling, Julie Boberg, Pernille Rosenskjold Jacobsen, Karen Riiber Mandrup, Marta Axelstad, Sofie Christiansen, Anne Marie Vinggaard, Camilla Taxvig, Andreas Kortenkamp, and Ulla Hass

Introduction Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during development is suggested to contribute to a rise in various types of reproductive problems in humans ( Skakkebæk et al . 2001 , Crain et al . 2008 ). It is generally accepted

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Marta Axelstad, Sofie Christiansen, Julie Boberg, Martin Scholze, Pernille Rosenskjold Jacobsen, Louise Krag Isling, Andreas Kortenkamp, and Ulla Hass

Introduction There is good evidence from animal studies that developmental exposure to environmental agents with endocrine-disrupting properties can cause adverse reproductive effects, including decreased anogenital distance (AGD), increased nipple

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Zelieann R Craig, Wei Wang, and Jodi A Flaws

Introduction According to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC) is an exogenous agent that interferes with synthesis, secretion, transport, metabolism, binding action, or elimination of natural blood

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Heather B Patisaul

reproductive system is so heavily dependent on steroid and other hormones to develop and function normally throughout life, of greatest concern are chemicals that have the capacity to act on or disrupt endocrine action, a group collectively called endocrine-disrupting

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Pushpa Singh and Deepa Bhartiya

Introduction Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are mostly synthetic compounds with oestrogenic activities that affect reproductive health and often show transgenerational effects. They exert adverse effects on other organ systems as well

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Troy A Roepke and Nicole C Sadlier

compounds which are known to interact with steroid (ER, AR) and nuclear receptors (aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)) expressed by hypothalamic neurons and pituitary gonadotropes. These compounds, called endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), exert their

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Christelle Stouder and Ariane Paoloni-Giacobino

Introduction Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are synthetic or natural compounds that may affect the function of the endocrine system. Methoxychlor (MXC), an EDC used as a pesticide, is a synthetic organochlorine derived from 1,1,1-trichloro-2

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M D Ashworth, J W Ross, D R Stein, D T Allen, L J Spicer, and R D Geisert

of implantation in pigs, and we have demonstrated that oestrogen can function as an endocrine disruptor of implantation if administered on Days 9 and 10, i.e. 48 h prior to the normal period of secretion of oestrogen and 96 h prior to initiation of

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Eric E Nilsson, Matthew D Anway, Jacob Stanfield, and Michael K Skinner

mother is exposed. Therefore, the F3 generation is the first unequivocal transgenerational generation. Recently, pregnant female rats exposed during the time of fetal sex determination to the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin have been shown to exhibit in