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Aron Moazamian CellOxess LLC, Ewing, New Jersey, USA
Université Clermont Auvergne, GReD Institute, CNRS-INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand, France

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Parviz Gharagozloo CellOxess LLC, Ewing, New Jersey, USA

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Robert J Aitken Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia

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Joël R Drevet Université Clermont Auvergne, GReD Institute, CNRS-INSERM, Clermont-Ferrand, France

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, clinical investigations of relative telomere length and its associations with male and female fertility have become more prevalent ( Table 1 ). Going through the evolving literature, it is apparent that oxidative stress, one of the most common underlying

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Cristian O’Flaherty Urology Division, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
The Research Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

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Eleonora Scarlata Urology Division, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
The Research Institute, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada

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aerobic metabolism ( Fig. 1 ). ROS have a dual role in spermatozoa; at high concentrations, they promote oxidative stress, damaging lipids, proteins, and DNA of the cell ( Aitken et al. 2022 ), but at low and controlled amounts, they trigger the redox

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Ewa Rudnicka Department of Gynaecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

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Anna Maria Duszewska Department of Morphological Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw, University of Life Science, Warsaw, Poland

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Marek Kucharski Department of Gynaecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

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Paweł Tyczyński Department of Interventional Cardiology and Angiology, National Institute of Cardiology, Warsaw, Poland

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Roman Smolarczyk Department of Gynaecological Endocrinology, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland

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debated causes of PCOS is oxidative stress (OS) ( Murri et al. 2013 , Desai et al. 2014 ). However, it has not been established whether oxygen stress affects the development of PCOS or whether it is only a secondary disorder resulting from

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R John Aitken Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, Discipline of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, College of Engineering Science and Environment, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia

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Elizabeth G Bromfield Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, Discipline of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, College of Engineering Science and Environment, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia

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Zamira Gibb Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, Discipline of Biological Sciences, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, College of Engineering Science and Environment, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
Hunter Medical Research Institute, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia

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of cell viability and functionality in the process. Thus, when the production of ROS becomes enhanced, and/or antioxidant defences become compromised, a state of oxidative stress arises generating pathological outcomes. These pathologies include

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Tessa Lord School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia

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R John Aitken School of Environmental and Life Sciences, Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Biology, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales 2308, Australia

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control this process and considers the current means by which post-ovulatory ageing can be prevented or delayed. Specifically, in light of recent research, we revisit the proposal that oxidative stress may act as the ‘trigger’ for a cascade of other events

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Zakia Sultana Mothers and Babies Research Program, Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia
School of Medicine and Public Health, College of Health Medicine and Wellbeing, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia

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Yixue Qiao Mothers and Babies Research Program, Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia
School of Medicine and Public Health, College of Health Medicine and Wellbeing, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia

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Kaushik Maiti Mothers and Babies Research Program, Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia
School of Medicine and Public Health, College of Health Medicine and Wellbeing, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia

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Roger Smith Mothers and Babies Research Program, Hunter Medical Research Institute, The University of Newcastle, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia
School of Medicine and Public Health, College of Health Medicine and Wellbeing, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia

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for the mother, including preeclampsia. This review focuses on the current understanding and evidence regarding the involvement of oxidative stress in placental abnormalities and its impact on adverse pregnancy outcomes, including fetal death and

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Margeaux W Marbrey Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

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Elizabeth S Douglas Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

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Emma R Goodwin Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

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Kathleen M Caron Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, School of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA

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presence of oxidative stress and hypoxia is especially important in the placenta because they facilitate development by promoting angiogenesis, proliferation, and differentiation ( Pringle et al. 2010 , Chiarello et al. 2020 ). In contrast, excessive

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Hua-Yu Lian College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-an City 271018, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China

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Yan Gao College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-an City 271018, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China

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Guang-Zhong Jiao College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-an City 271018, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China

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Ming-Ju Sun College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-an City 271018, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China

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Xiu-Fen Wu College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-an City 271018, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China

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Tian-Yang Wang College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-an City 271018, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China

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Hong Li College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-an City 271018, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China

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Jing-He Tan College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai-an City 271018, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China

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balance is disrupted toward an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress occurs ( Agarwal et al . 2005 ). Oxidative stress has been identified to play a key role in the pathogenesis of subfertility in both males and females. However, whereas the adverse

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Fei Liu Department of Urology, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China

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Zhen-Zhen Chen Institute of Medical Research, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China

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Jie Zhao Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China

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Yuan-Qiang Zhang Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China

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Jing Ma Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Xijing Hospital, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China

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Wei Li Institute of Medical Research, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China
Department of Human Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Air Force Medical University, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, People’s Republic of China

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culture, the purity of isolated LCs was >90% as revealed by 3β-HSD staining ( Zhao et al. 2008 ). To study whether MTA3 expression was regulated by moderate oxidative stress, primary LCs or TM3 cells were challenged with different doses of H 2 O 2 or

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Jacinta H Martin Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, College of Engineering, Science and Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
Hunter Medical Research Institute Program in Infertility and Reproduction, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia

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Brett Nixon Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, College of Engineering, Science and Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
Hunter Medical Research Institute Program in Infertility and Reproduction, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia

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Shenae L Cafe Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, College of Engineering, Science and Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
Hunter Medical Research Institute Program in Infertility and Reproduction, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia

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R John Aitken Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, College of Engineering, Science and Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
Hunter Medical Research Institute Program in Infertility and Reproduction, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia

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Elizabeth G Bromfield Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, College of Engineering, Science and Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
Hunter Medical Research Institute Program in Infertility and Reproduction, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia

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Tessa Lord Priority Research Centre for Reproductive Science, School of Environmental and Life Sciences, College of Engineering, Science and Environment, The University of Newcastle, Callaghan, New South Wales, Australia
Hunter Medical Research Institute Program in Infertility and Reproduction, New Lambton Heights, New South Wales, Australia

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binding (sperm-egg fusion protein Juno (JUNO), astacin-like metalloendopeptidase (ASTL; also known as ovastacin)). Importantly, this updated review of the literature continues to demonstrate the intricate association between oxidative stress, mitochondrial

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