Infertility in certain males has been attributed to the presence of circulating autoantibodies to spermatozoa (Wilson, 1954; Rao & Sadri, 1959; Hanafiah, Epstein & Sobrero, 1972). Doubts have been expressed, however, about the clinical significance of these antibodies because they have been observed to be present in some fertile men (Fjallbrant, 1967; S. S. Rao, T. N. S. Udupa & S. S. Dikshit, unpublished observations). Various immunological methods, such as the sperm agglutination technique of Kibrick (Kibrick, Belding & Merril, 1952), microagglutination of spermatozoa (Franklin & Dukes, 1964), passive haemagglutination test (Rao & Sadri, 1959; Rangnekar & Rao, 1972), have been employed for detecting the presence of anti-sperm antibodies. It is possible that the tests used do not detect clinically signficant levels of antibodies in fertile men possessing such antibodies. Another possibility is that the spermspecific antibodies, though present in the blood, might not find access to the reproductive tract
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