In mammals suffering from vitamin A deficiency, the testes show various degrees of atrophy associated with a reduction in spermatogenic activity (Moustgaard, 1969). Coward, Howell, Pitt & Thompson (1966) and Palludan (1966a) demonstrated that this effect of vitamin A deficiency is not related to an endocrine deficiency, and Palludan (1966b) in the boar and Ahluwalia & Bieri (1971) in the rat showed that it is due to a direct effect on the process of spermatogenesis. The same investigators observed that in animals whose rate of growth and health were maintained on retinoic acid (vitamin A acid), testicular lesions still occurred. Injections of retinol (vitamin A alcohol), or retinaldehyde (vitamin A aldehyde) made directly into the testes restored spermatogenesis at the site of injection. Little information is available on the levels of endogenous vitamin A in testis
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