Carnitine acetyltransferase activities have been determined in the testes of developing and cryptorchid rats. This enzyme appears to be associated with the primary spermatocytes and early spermatids of the rat testis since activities increased markedly when these cells were proliferating. The usefulness of carnitine acetyltransferase as a `marker enzyme' in the spermatogenic process is re-emphasized. Serum testosterone levels in the same animals closely paralleled the increased enzymatic activity (r = 0·59; P<0·01). The testes of rats made experimentally cryptorchid contained reduced activity of carnitine acetyltransferase. The enzyme activity of 1-day cryptorchid testes was reduced to approximately half, and the activity of 10-day cryptorchid testes was reduced to one-sixth that of normal adult testes.
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