Summary. Intravenous bolus injections of pig relaxin which produced short-lived peaks of the hormone equivalent in concentration to those observed at term promptly rendered the uterus almost totally quiescent and the inhibition persisted for about 2·5 h. During this time the uterus remained responsive to oxytocin. The main effect of relaxin was to reduce the frequency of intrauterine pressure cycles rather than the amplitude. In contrast progesterone, which also inhibited myometrial activity, took between 6 and 24 h to exert its maximum effect by reducing both amplitude and frequency of IUP cycles and it also abolished the responsiveness of the myometrium to oxytocin. Its actions were reversible but recovery took between 54 and 140 h. Oestradiol benzoate had no significant effect on myometrial activity in 21 out of 26 treatments. At 24 h after the 5 remaining treatments, however, myometrial activity was virtually zero. No evidence was obtained of a biphasic effect of oestradiol on myometrial activity as reported for the rat and ewe. This work demonstrates that purified pig relaxin is an active myometrial inhibitor in the oestrogen-treated ovariectomized non-pregnant pig in vivo.