Summary. In 5 caged langurs menstrual cycle length (for 125 cycles) varied from 18 to 45 days with a mean ± s.d. of 26·3 ± 3·6 days. Menstruation lasted for 2 days. A distinct cycle of vaginal smear cells was observed with a maximum cornification on Day 10 coinciding with the serum oestradiol peak. A monophasic pattern of vaginal temperature with a significant nadir on Day 11, 1 day after the oestradiol peak, was observed. Serum sialic acid concentrations directly reflected the oestrogenic activity and showed a significant peak on Day 10, coinciding with the oestradiol peak and was followed by a progesterone rise. Langurs menstruated throughout the year without showing any sign of summer amenorrhoea. We suggest that maximum cornification, vaginal temperature nadir and serum sialic acid peak could be used as markers for prediction and detection of the time of ovulation in langur monkeys.
Keywords: langur; vaginal temperature; serum oestradiol; vaginal smear patterns; serum sialic acid; ovulation; menstrual cycle
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