Summary. The timing of ovulation in feral goats treated with 1200 i.u. PMSG ± 50 μg GnRH was studied by repeated laparoscopy. Experiment 1 established that superovulation began as early as 30 h after withdrawal of progestagen-impregnated sponges and was not completed at 54 h if goats received PMSG alone. GnRH synchronized ovulation, leading to 91% of ovulations appearing between 36 and 48 h after sponges were withdrawn. Experiment 2 established that superovulation continued until up to 77 h in goats treated only with PMSG. The stress of repeated laparoscopy appeared to delay or abolish ovulation in some females. The mean (±s.e.) ovulation rate was greater in goats treated with GnRH (12·7 ± 1·3) than in those that received PMSG only (9·7 ± 1·1; P < 0·05). Out of 47 of the females in Exp. 1, 43 had one or more corpora lutea at laparoscopy 24 h after withdrawal of progestagen. These early corpora lutea were associated with an increased concentration of plasma progesterone during the periovulatory period. Experiment 3 provided evidence that these corpora lutea arose before the withdrawal of progestagen-impregnated sponges.