Summary. The effects of Steel–Dickie (Sld) mutations on testicular germ cell differentiation were investigated using experimental cryptorchidism and its surgical reversal in mutant, C57BL/6-Sld/+ and wild-type C57BL/6- +/+ mice. In Sld/+ cryptorchid testes the maintenance of undifferentiated type-A spermatogonia was impaired and their numbers decreased. In contrast, the proliferative activity of type-A spermatogonia in the cryptorchid testis of mutant mice appeared normal as judged by their progression through the cell cycle. Surgical reversal of cryptorchidism resulted in regenerative differentiation of mature germ cells in +/+ testes. However, the regenerative differentiation of type-A spermatogonia which remained in Sld/+ cryptorchid testes was strongly impaired, particularly at two steps of cellular differentiation, from type-A spermatogonia to intermediate or type-B spermatogonia and at meiotic division. Furthermore, in mutant mice, no significant recovery of testicular weight was observed after surgical reversal compared with +/+ mice.